American Association for Emergency Psychiatry

AAEP Bibliography

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I.          Assessment

II.         Medical Issues

(a)        Medical Clearance

(b)        Delirium

(c)        NMS and Serotonin Syndrome

(d)        Overdoses and Poisonings

III.       Behavioral Emergencies

(a)        Agitation, aggression and violence

(b)        Pharmacological treatment of agitation and violence

(c)        Restraint and Seclusion

IV.       Specific Disorders

(a)        Mood Disorders

(b)        Psychotic Disorders

(c)        Anxiety Disorders

(d)        Substance Use Disorders

(e)        Personality Disorders

(f)         Eating Disorders

(g)        HIV

(h)        Acquired Brain Injury

V.        Special Populations

(a)        Child and Adolescent

(b)        Geriatric

(c)        Homeless

VI.       Treatment

(a)        General Treatment Articles

(b)        Psychopharmacology

(c)        Psychotherapy

VII.      Suicide

VIII.     Interpersonal Violence

IX.       Disaster Psychiatry

X.        Disposition and Outcome

XI.       Systems Issues

(a)        Organization of services

(b)        Managed Care

(c)        Administrative

(d)        Other

XII.      Education

XIII.     General Topics in Emergency Psychiatry

XIV.    Medicolegal Issues

(a)        Commitment and certification

(b)        Consent and capacity

(c)        Forensic

(d)        Other

XV.      Textbooks and Internet References


I. Assessment


Allen MH, Dacpano G. The Emergency Evaluation. Emerg Psychiatry 1996; 1: 78-79.

Barker GA, Hillard JR. The patient on the ledge: evaluation and intervention. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1987; 38(9): 992-4.

Beauford JE, McNiel DE, et al. Utility of the initial therapeutic alliance in evaluating psychiatric patients' risk of violence.  Am J Psychiatry 1997; 154 (9): 1272-6.

Breslow RE, Klinger BI, et al. Time Study of Psychiatric Emergency Service Evaluations. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1997; 19: 1-4.

Coontz PD, Lidz CW, Mulvey EP. Gender and the assessment of dangerousness in the psychiatric emergency room. Int J Law Psychiatry 1994; 17(4):369-376.

Copersino ML, Serper MR, et al. Rapid Screening For Cognitive Disorders. Emerg Psychiatry 1998; 4 (3): 51-3.

Currier GW, Allen MH, Serper MR, Trenton AJ, Copersino ML. Medical, Psychiatric, and Cognitive Assessment in the Psychiatric Emergency Service. Emerg Psychiatry 2003. In Allen MH (Ed), Emergency Psychiatry.  Review of Psychiatry Series, Volume 21, No 3, Oldham JM and Riba MB (Series Eds).  American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington, DC.

Dawes SS, Bloniarz PA, et al. Supporting Psychiatric Assessment in Emergency Rooms. Albany, NY, Center For Technology in Government 1995.

Eppard J, Anderson J. Emergency psychiatric assessment: the nurse, psychiatrist, and counselor roles during the process. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 1995; 33 (10): 17-23.

Feinstein R, Plutchik R. Violence and suicide risk assessment in the psychiatric emergency room. Compr Psychiatry 1990; 31 (4): 337-43.

Galynker II, Harvey PD. Neuropsychological screening in the psychiatric emergency room. Compr Psychiatry 1992; 33 (5): 291-5.

Hockberger RS, Rothstein RJ, Assessment of suicide potential by nonpsychiatrists using SAD PERSONS score. J Emerg Med 1988; 6: 99.

Kahn MW. Emergency psychiatry: tools of engagement: avoiding pitfalls in collaborating with patients. Psychiatr Serv 2001; 52(12): 1571-1572.

Kaufman DM, Zun L. A quantifiable, Brief Mental Status Examination For emergency patients. J Emerg Med 1995; 13(4): 449-456.

Marson DC, McGovern MP, et al. Psychiatric Decision Making in the Emergency Room: A Research Overview. Am J Psychiatry 1988; 145 (8): 918-25.

McNiel DE, Binder RL. Predictive validity of judgments of dangerousness in emergency civil commitment. Am J Psychiatry 1987; 144 (2): 197-200.

Meyers J, Stein S. The Psychiatric Interview in the Emergency Department. Emerg Clin N Am 2000; 18: 173-183.

Segal SP, Watson MA, et al. Civil commitment in the psychiatric emergency room. I. The assessment of dangerousness by emergency room clinicians. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988; 45: 748-752.

Segal SP, Watson MA, et al. Civil commitment in the psychiatric emergency room II. Mental disorder indicators and three dangerousness criteria." Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988; 45 (8):753-58.

Segal SP, Watson MA, et al. Civil commitment in the psychiatric emergency room. III. Disposition as a function of mental disorder and dangerousness indicators. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988; 45 (8): 759-763.

Segal SP, Watson MA, et al. Quality of Care and Use of Less Restrictive Alternatives in the Psychiatric Emergency Service. Psychiatr Serv 1996; 47 (6): 623-627.

Stern TA, Schwartz JH, et al. The evaluation of homicidal patients by psychiatric residents in the emergency room: a pilot study. Psychiatr Quart 1991; 62 (4): 333-44.

Thienhaus OJ, Piasecki M. Assessment of suicide risk. Psychiatr Serv 1997; 48 (3): 293-4.

Tintinalli JE, Peacock FW, Wright MA: Emergency Evaluation of Psychiatric Patients. Ann Emerg Med 1994; 23: 859-862.

Turner PM, Turner TJ. Validation of the crisis triage rating scale for psychiatric emergencies. Can J Psychiatry 1991; 36 (9): 651-4.

Way BB, Allen MH, et al. Interrater agreement among psychiatrists in psychiatric emergency assessments [see comments]. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155 (10): 1423-8.

Wood KA, Khuri R. Temporal aspects of emergency room psychiatric evaluations. J Nerv Ment Dis 1988; 176 (3): 161-6.

Zun LS, Leikin JB, Stotland NL, Blade L, Marks RC. A tool For the emergency medicine evaluation of psychiatric patients. Am J Emerg Med 1996; 14(3):329-333.

Zun LS, Howes DS. The mental status evaluation. Application in the emergency department. Am J Emerg Med 1988; 6 (2): 165-72.


II. Medical Issues

(a)   Medical Clearance


Alessi CA, Cassel CK. Medical evaluation and common medical problems. In: Sadavoy J, Lazarus LW, Jarvik LF, editors. Comprehensive Review of Geriatric Psychiatry. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Press, 2004: 171-195.

Allen M, Fauman MA, et al. Emergency Psychiatric Evaluation of "Organic" Mental Disorders. The Growth and Specialization of Emergency Psychiatry. MH Allen. San Francisco, California, Jossey-Bass Publishers. 1995; Number 67: 45-55.

Brady WJ, Esterowitz D, Winogard SM. Life-threatening Syndromes Presenting with Altered Mentation and Muscular Rigidity. Emerg Med Report 1999; 20: 51-59.

Broderick KB, Lerner EB, McCourt JD, et al. Emergency physician practices and requirements regarding medical screening examinations of psychiatric patients. Acad Emerg Med 2002; 9: 88-92.

Buckley, RA: Differentiating Medical and Psychiatric Illness. Psychiatr Ann 1994; 24: 11.

Carroll BT, Kennedy JC, Goforth HW. Catatonic signs in medical and psychiatric catatonias. CNS Spectrums. 2000; 5: 66-69.

Fink M, Taylor MA. The many varieties of catatonia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2001; 251 (Suppl 1): I8-I13.

Fisher CM. Unexplained sudden amnesia. Arch Neurol 2002; 59(8): 1310-1313.

Henneman PL, Mendoza R, Lewis RJ, Prospective evaluation of emergency department medical clearance. Ann Emerg Med 1994; 24: 672-677.

Hammett-Stabler CA, Pesce AJ, Cannon DJ. Urine drug screening in the medical setting. Clin Chim Acta 2002; 315(1-2): 125-35.

Kirby SG. “Medical clearance" and the "last hurdle." Ann Intern Med 1988; 108(3):495.

Knutsen E, DuRand C. Previously unrecognized physical illness in psychiatric patients. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1991; 42: 182-186.

Koranyi EK, et al. Physical illness underlying psychiatric symptoms. Psychother Psychosom 1992; 38(3-4): 155.

Korn CS, Currier GW, Henderson SO. Medical clearance of psychiatric patients without medical complaints in the emergency department. J Emerg Med 2000; 18: 173-176.

Lagomasino I, Daly R, Stoudemire A. Medical assessment of patients presenting with psychiatric symptoms in the emergency setting. Psychiatr Clin N Am 1999; 22 (4): 819-850.

Olshaker JS, Browne B, Jerrard DA, et al. Medical screening and clearance of psychiatric patients in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 1997; 4: 124-128.

Reeves RR, Pendarvis EJ, Kimble R. Unrecognized medical emergencies admitted to psychiatric units. Am J Emerg Med 2000; 18(4): 390-3.

Riba M. Medical clearance: Fact or fiction in the hospital emergency room. Psychosomatics 1990; 31: 400-404.

Schiller MJ, Shumway M, Batki SL. Utility of a routine drug screening in a psychiatric emergency setting. Psychiatr Serv 2000;51:474-478.

Schuster J, Thienhaus O, et al. Usefulness of physical examinations in the psychiatric emergency service. Psychiatr Serv 1996; 47 (6): 575-576.

Teplin LA, Abram KM, et al. Blood alcohol level among emergency room patients: a multivariate analysis. J Stud Alcohol 1989; 50 (5): 441-7.

Thienhaus OJ. Rational physical evaluation in the emergency room. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1992; 43: 311-312.

Viner MW, Waite J, et al. Comorbidity and the Need For Physical Examinations Among Patients Seen in the Psychiatric Emergency Service. Psychiatr Serv 1996; 47 (9): 947-948.

Williams ER, Shepherd SM. Medical clearance of psychiatric patients. Emerg Med Clin N Am 2000; 18: 185-198.

Wulsin LR, Arnold LM, et al. Axis I disorders in ER patients with atypical chest pain. Int J Psych Med 1991; 21 (1): 37-46.

(b)   Delirium


Fishbain DA, Rotundo D. Frequency of hypoglycemic delirium in a psychiatric emergency service. Psychosomatics 1988; 29(3): 346-8.

Johnson J. Identifying and recognizing delirium. Demet Geriatr Cogn Disord 1999; 10: 353-358.

Kishi Y, Iwasaki Y, et al. Delirium in critical care unit patients admitted through an emergency room. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1995; 17 (5): 371-9.

Palmistierna T. A model for predicting alcohol withdrawal delirium. Psychiatr Serv 2001; 52: 820-823.

Rund DA. Distinguishing functional from organic brain disorders in the emergency department. Resident & Staff Physician. 1995; 41: 11-15.

(c)    NMS and Serotonin Syndrome


Bertorini T. Myoglobinuria, malignant hyperthermia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and serotonin syndrome. Neurol Clin 1997; 15: 649.

Bodner RA et al. Serotonin Syndrome. Neurology 1995; 45: 219-223.

Carbone J. The neuroleptic malignant and serotonin syndromes. Emer Med Clin No Amer 2000; 18: 317-325.

Caroff SN, Mann SC, Campbell EC. Neurolpetic malignant syndrome. Adverse Drug Reactions Bulletin 2001; 209: 799-802.

Francis A, Chandragiri S, Rizvi S, et al. Is lorazepam a treatment for neuroleptic malignant syndrome? CNS Spect 2000; 5: 54-57.

Gaitini L et al. Plasmapheresis in neuroleptic malignant syndrome [comment]. Anesthesia 1997; 52: 612.

Geduscheck J et al. Repeated anesthesia for a patient with neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Anesthesiology 1988; 68: 134.

Harris M, Nora L, Tanner C. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome response to carbidopa/levodopa: support for a dopaminergic pathogenesis. Clin Neurpharmacol 1987; 10: 186.

Hasan S, Buckley P. Novel Antipsychotics and the Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A Review and Critique. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155: 1113-1116.

Pelonero Al, Levenson JL, Pandurangi AK. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A Review. Psychiatr Serv 1998; 49: 1163-1172.

(d) Overdoses and Poisonings

Ashbourne J, Olson K, et al. Value of Rapid Screening For Acetaminophen in All Patients with Intentional Drug Overdose. Ann Emerg Med 1989; 18(10): 1035-1038.

Bremner JD, Wingard P, et al. Safety of mirtazapine in overdose. J Clin Psychiatry 1998; 59 (5): 233-5.

Brown K, Levy H, Brenner C, Leffler S, Hamburg EL. Overdose of risperidone. Ann Emerg Med 1993; 22(12):1908-1910.

Dargan PI, Jones AL. Acetaminophen poisoning: an update for the intensivist. Crit Care 2002; 6(2): 108-110.

Frommer DA, Kulig KW, Marx JA, Rumack B. Tricyclic antidepressant overdose. A review. JAMA 1987; 257(4):521-526.

Glauser J. Tricyclic antidepressant poisoning. Cleve Clin J Med 2000; 67(10): 704-706.

Kerr GW, McGuffie AC, Wilkie S. Tricyclic antidepressant overdose: a review. Emerg Med J 2001; 18(4): 236-241.

Kulig K. Initial management of ingestions of toxic substances. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 1677.

Nagappan R, Parkin WG, Holdsworth SR. Acute lithium intoxication. Anaesth Intensive Care 2002; 30(1): 90-2.

Owens DW, Jones SJ. The accident and emergency department management of deliberate self-poisoning. Br J Psychiatry 1988; 152: 830-3.


III.       Behavioral Emergencies

(a)   Agitation, aggression and violence


Allen MH, Currier GW, Hughes DH, et al. The Expert Consensus Guideline Series: Treatment of Behavioral Emergencies. Postgrad. Med Special Report, May 2001: 1-90.

Allen MH. Managing the agitated psychotic patient: a reappraisal of the evidence. J Clin. Psychiatry 2000; 61 (Suppl. 14): 11-20.

Anderson AA, Ghali AY, et al. Weapon carrying among patients in a psychiatric emergency room. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1989; 40 (8): 845-7.

Appelbaum P, Robbins P, Monahan J. Violence and delusions: data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. Am J Psychiatry 2000; 157 (4): 566-572.

Bacaner N, Kinney TA, Biros M, Bochert S, Casuto N. The Relationship among depressive and alcoholic symptoms and aggressive behavior in adult male emergency department patients. Acad Emerg Med 2002; 9(2): 120-9.

Beck JC, White KA, et al. Emergency psychiatric assessment of violence. Am J Psychiatry 1991; 148 (11): 1562-5.

Binder RL, McNiel DE. Contemporary practices in managing acutely violent patients in 20 psychiatric emergency rooms. Psychiatr Serv 1999; 50 (12): 1553-4.

Black KJ et al. Assaults by patients on psychiatric residents at three training sites. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1994; 45: 706-710.

Citrome L, Volvaka J. Violent patients in the emergency setting. Psychiatr Clin N Am 1999; 22 (4) :789-801.

Dhossche DM. Aggression and recent substance abuse: absence of association in psychiatric emergency room patients. Compr Psychiatry 1999; 40 (5): 343-6.

Dietch JT, Jennings RK. Aggressive dyscontrol in patients treated with benzodiazepines. J Clin Psychiatry 1988; 49:184-188.

Erdos BZ, Hughes DH. A review of assaults by patients against staff at psychiatric emergency centers. Psychiatr Serv 2001; 52 (9):1175-1177.

Fernandes CM et al. The effect of an educational program on violence in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 2002; 39(1): 47-55.

Gardner W, Lidz CW, Mulvey EP, Shaw EC. Clinical versus actuarial predictions of violence of patients with mental illnesses. J Consult Clin Psychol 1996; 64(3):602-609.

Grange JT, Corbett SW. Violence against emergency medical services personnel. Prehospital Emergency Care 2002; 6(2): 186-90.

Hill S, Petit J. The violent patient. Emerg Med Clin N Am 2000; 18 (2):301-315.

Hughes DH. Assessment of the potential for violence. Psychiatr Ann 1994; 24: 579-583.

Klassen D, O'Connor WA. Predicting violence in schizophrenic and non-schizophrenic patients: A prospective study. J Comm Psychology 1988; 16: 217-227.

Lavoi FW, Carter GL, Danzl DF, et al: Emergency department violence in United States teaching hospitals. Ann Emerg Med 1988; 17(11): 1227-1233.

Lidz CW, Mulvey EP, et al. The accuracy of predictions of violence to others. JAMA 1993; 269(8): 1007-1011.

Lindenmayer JP. The pathophysiology of agitation. J Clin Psychiatry 2000; 61 (Suppl. 14): 5-10.

Newhill CE, Mulvey EP, et al. Characteristics of violence in the community by female patients seen in a psychiatric emergency service. Psychiatr Serv 1995; 46 (8): 785-9.

Pane, GA, Winiarski AM, et al. Aggression directed toward emergency department staff at a university teaching hospital. Ann Emerg Med 1991; 20(3): 283-6.

Presley D, Robinson G. Violence in the emergency department: nurses contend with prevention in the healthcare arena. Nurs Clin N Am 2002; 37(1):161-169.

Rice, M. and G. Moore (1991). Management of the Violent Patient: Therapeutic and Legal Considerations. Emerg Med Clin N Am 1991; 9: 13-30.

Taliaferro E, Sabler P, et al. Violence Prevention in Emergency Medicine. American College of Emergency Physicians 1997; (41): 1-8. (can be found at

Tardiff K. Prediction of violence. J Pract Psych Behav Hlth 1998:12-19.

Tardiff, K. Management of the Violent Patient in an Emergency Situation. Psychiatr Clin N Am 1988; 11 (4): 539-549.

Tesar GE. The agitated patient, Part I: Evaluation and behavioral management. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1993; 44(4): 329-331.

(b)   Pharmacological treatment of agitation and violence


Battaglia J, Moss S et al. Haloperidol, lorazepam, or both for psychotic agitation? A multicenter, prospective, double-blind, emergency department study. Am J Emerg Med 1997; 15 (4): 335-340.

Bienek SA, Ownby RL, Penalver A, et al. A double-blind study of lorazepam versus the combination of haloperidol and lorazepam in managing agitation. Pharmacotherapy 1998; 18: 57-62.

Breier A, Meehan K, Birkett M, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-response comparison of intramuscular olanzapine and haloperidol in the treatment of acute agitation in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002; 59(5): 441-8.

Brieden T, Ujeyl M, Naber D. Psychopharmacological treatment of aggression in schizophrenic patients. Pharmacopsychiatry 2002; 35(3): 83-9.

Clinton JE, Sterner S, Steimacheers Z, et al: Haloperidol for sedation of disruptive emergency patients. Ann Emerg Med 1987; 16: 319.

Currier GW, Simpson GM. Risperidone liquid concentrate and oral lorazepam versus intramuscular haloperidol and intramuscular lorazepam for treatment of psychotic agitation. J Clin Psychiatry 2001; 62(3): 153-157.

Currier GW, Trenton A. Pharmacological treatment of psychotic agitation. CNS Drugs 2002; 16(4):219-28.

Daniel DG, Potkin SG, Reeves KR, et al. Intramuscular (IM) ziprasidone 20mg is effective in reducing acute agitation associated with psychosis: a double-blind, randomized trial. Psychopharmacology 2001; 155: 128-134.

Dubin WR, Feld JA:  Rapid tranquilization of the violent patient. Am J Emerg Med. 1989; 7: 313.

Dubin W. Rapid Tranquilization: Antipsychotics or Benzodiazepines? J Clin Psychiatry 1988; 29: 5-11.

Foster S, Kessel J, et al. Efficacy of lorazepam and haloperidol for rapid tranquilization in a psychiatric emergency room setting. Int Clin Psychopharm 1997; 12 (3): 175-180.

Garza-Trevino E, Hollister L, et al. Efficacy of Combinations of Intramuscular Antipsychotics and Sedative-Hypnotics For Control of Psychotic Agitation. Am J Psychiatry 1989; 146: 1598-1601.

Hillard JR. Choosing antipsychotics for rapid tranquilization in the ER. Curr Psychiatry 2002; 1: 22-29.

Hughes DH. Acute psychopharamacological management of the aggressive psychotic patient. Psychiatr Serv 1999; 50: 1135-1137.

Kinon BJ, Roychowdhury SM, Milton DR, et al. Effective resolution with olanzapine of acute presentation of behavioral agitation and positive psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry 2001; 62 (Suppl 2): 17-21.

Richards JR, Derlet RW, et al. Chemical Restraint For the Agitated Patient in the Emergency Department: Lorazepam Versus Droperidol. J Emerg Med 1998; 16(4): 567-573. Rund DA, Ewing JD, Mitzel K, Votolato N. The use of intramuscular benzodiazepines and antipsychotic agents in the treatment of acute agitation or violence in the emergency department. J Emerg Med 2006; 31 (3): 317-324.

Thomas H Jr., Schwartz E, et al. Droperidol versus haloperidol for chemical restraint of agitated and combative patients. Ann Emerg Med 1992; 21(4): 407-13.

(c)    Restraint and Seclusion


Currier GW, Allen MH. Physical and chemical restraints in the psychiatric emergency service. Psychiatr Serv 2000; 51: 717-719.

Kao LW, Moore GP. The violent patient: clinical management, use of physical and chemical restraints, and medicolegal concerns. Emerg Med Pract 1999; 1: 1-23.

Miller WH, Resnick MP. Restraining the violent pregnant patient. Am J Psychiatry 1991; 148(2): 269.

Sheline Y, Nelson T. Patient choice: deciding between psychotropic medication and physical restraints in an emergency. Bull Am Acad Psychiatr Law 1993; 21(3): 321-329.


IV.       Specific Disorders


(a)    Mood Disorders


Allen MH, Currier GW. Diagnosis and treatment of mania in the psychiatric emergency service. Psychiatric Annals 2000; 30(4): 258-266.

Chou JC-Y. Recent Advances in Treatment of Acute Mania. J Clin Psychopharm 1991; 11:3-21.

Chouinard G. The use of benzodiazepines in the treatment of manic-depressive illness. J Clin Psychiatry 1988; 49 (suppl. 11): 15-20.

Coryell W, Leon AC, Turvey C, et al. The significance of psychotic features in manic episodes: a report from the NIMH collaborative study. J Affect Disord 2001; 67(1-3): 79-88.

Henry C, Sorbara F, Lacoste J, et al. Antidepressant-induced mania in bipolar patients: identification of risk factors. J Clin Psychiatry 2001; 62(4): 249-255.

Milner KK, Florence T, et al. Mood and anxiety syndromes in emergency psychiatry. Psychiatr Clin N Am 1999; 22 (4): 755-77.

Slaby A. The Emergency Treatment of the Depressed Patient with Physical Illness. Int J Psych Med 1987; 17 (1): 71-83.

(b)   Psychotic Disorders


Forster PL, Buckley R, Phelps MA. Phenomenology and treatment of psychotic disorders in the psychiatric emergency service. Psychiatr Clin N Am 1999; 23: 735-754.

Hatta K, Takahashi T, et al. Laboratory findings in acute schizophrenia. Relevance to medical management on emergency admission. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1999; 21(3): 220-227.

Hellerstein D, Frosch W, Koenigsberg HW. The clinical significance of command hallucinations. Am J Psychiatry 1987; 44: 219.

Hillard JR. Emergency Treatment of Acute Psychosis. J Clin Psychiatry 1998; 59 (1): 57-60.

Junginger J. Command hallucinations and the prediction of dangerousness. Psychiatr Serv 1995; 46: 911-914.

Junginger J. Predicting compliance with command hallucinations. Am J Psychiatry 1990; 147(2):245-247.

Reischel UA, Shih RD. Evaluation and management of psychotic patients in the emergency department. Hosp Phys 1999: 26-38.

Stiebel VG, Allen MH, et al. Management of acute psychosis in the emergency setting. Psychiatr Ann 2000; 30 (4): 236-247.Swanson JW, Swartz MS, Van Dorn RA, Elbogen EB, Wagner R, et al. A National Study of Violent Behavior in Persons With Schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006; 63 (5):490-499.Walsh E, Buchanan A, Fahy T. Violence and schizophrenia: examining the evidence. Br J Psychiatry 2002; 180(6): 490 - 495.

(c) Anxiety Disorders

Fawcett J. Treating impulsivity and anxiety in the suicidal patient. Ann NY Acad Sci 2001; 932: 94-102; discussion 102-105.

Forster P, King J. Traumatic stress reactions and the psychiatric emergency. Psychiatr Ann 1994; 24: 603-609.

Kaplan Z, Iancu I, Bodner E. A review of psychological debriefing after extreme stress. Psychiatr Serv 2001; 52: 824-827.

Katon WJ, Von Korff M, et al. Panic disorder: relationship to high medical utilization. Am J Med 1992; 92 (1) (Suppl 1): S7-S11.

Klein E, Linn S, et al. Anxiety disorders among patients in a general emergency service in Israel. Psychiatr Serv 1995; 46 (5): 488-92.

Lang AJ, Stein MB. Anxiety disorders. How to recognize and treat the medical symptoms of emotional illness. Geriatrics 2001; 56 (5): 24-27, 31-34.

Merritt TC. Recognition and acute management of patients with panic attacks in the emergency department. Emerg Med Clin N Am 2000; 18: 289-300.

Osterman JE, Chemtob CM. Emergency intervention for acute traumatic stress. Psychiatr Serv 1999; 50 (6): 739-40.

Pollard CA, Lewis LM. Managing panic attacks in emergency patients. J Emerg Med 1989; 7(5): 547-52.

Schwartz GM, Braverman BG, et al. Anxiety disorders and psychiatric referral in the general medical emergency room. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1987; 9 (2): 87-93.

Warshaw MG, Dolan RT, Keller MD. Suicidal behavior in patients with current or past panic disorder: Five years of prospective data from the Harvard/Brown Anxiety Research Program. Am J Psychiatry 2000; 157: 1876-1878.

(d) Substance Use Disorders


Alldredge BK, Lowenstein DH, et al. Placebo-controlled trial of intravenous diphenylhydantoin for short-term treatment of alcohol withdrawal seizures. Am J Med 1989; 87 (6): 645-648.

Baker FM. Cocaine psychosis. J Nat Med Assoc 1989; 81(9): 987, 990, 993-6.

Barbee JG, Clark PD, et al. Alcohol and substance abuse among schizophrenic patients presenting to an emergency psychiatric service. J Nerv Ment Dis 1989; 177 (7): 400-7.

Bialer PA. Designer drugs in the general hospital. Psychiatr Clin N Am 2002; 25: 231-243.

Brady K, Lydiard R, et al. Cocaine-induced Psychosis. J Clin Psychiatry 1991; 52: 509-512.

Breslow R, Klinger B, et al. Acute Intoxication and Substance Abuse Among Patients Presenting to a Psychiatric Emergency Service. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1996; 18 (3): 183-191.

Brewer C, Rezae H, et al. Opioid Withdrawal and Naltrexone Induction in 48-72 Hours with Minimal Drop-out, Using Modification of the Naltrezone-Clonidine Technique. Br J Psychiatry 1988; 153: 340-343.

Brody SL, Slovis CM, et al. Cocaine-related medical problems: consecutive series of 233 patients [see comments]. Am J Med 1990; 88 (4): 325-31.

Buhrich N, Weller A, Kevans P. Misuse of anticholinergic drugs by people with serious mental illness. Psychiatr Serv 2000; 51: 928-929.

Chin MY, Kreutzer RA, et al. Acute poisoning from gamma-hydroxybutyrate in California. West J Med 1992; 156 (4): 380-4.

Claassen CA, Gilfillan S, et al. Substance Use Among Patients with a Psychotic Disorder in a Psychiatric Emergency Room. Psychiatr Serv 1997; 48 (3): 353-8.

Colliver J, Kopstein A. Trends in Cocaine Abuse Reflected in Emergency Room Episodes Reported to DAWN. Drug Abuse Warning Network 1991; 106 (1): 59-68.

Curran HV, Monaghan L. In and out of K-hole: a comparison of the acute and residual effects of ketamine in frequent and infrequent ketamine users. Addiction 2001; 96: 749-760.

Currier GW, Allen MH. Cocaine Toxicology Testing at Psychiatric Emergency Department Presentation. Am J Forensic Psych 1998; 19(3): 55-66.

Currier GW, Serper MR, et al. Diagnosing Substance Abuse in Psychiatric Emergency Service Patients. Growth and Specialization of Emergency Psychiatry. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Publishers 1995.

D' Onofrio G, Bernstein E, Bernstein J, Woolard RH, et al. Patients with alcohol problems in the emergency department, Part 1: improving detection. Acad Emerg Med 1998; 5: 1200-1209.

Derlet RW, Heischober B. Methamphetamine. Stimulant of the 1990s? West J Med 1990; 153 (6): 625-8.

Derlet RW, Rice P, Zane B, et al. Amphetamine Toxicity:  Experience With 127 Cases. J Emerg Med 1989; 7: 157-161.

Dowling GP, McDonough ED, et al. 'Eve' and 'Ecstasy'. A report of five deaths associated with the use of MDEA and MDMA." JAMA 1987; 257 (12): 1615-7.

Dyer JE, Roth B, Hyma BA. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate withdrawal syndrome. Ann Emerg Med 2001; 37: 147-153.

Elangovan N, Berman S, et al. Substance abuse among patients presenting at an inner-city psychiatric emergency room [see comments]. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1993; 44: 782-784.

el-Guebaly N, Armstrong SJ, et al. Substance abuse and the emergency room: programmatic implications. J Addict Dis 1998; 17 (2): 21-40.

Fleming MF, Barry KL, et al. Brief physician advice for problem alcohol drinkers. A randomized controlled trial in community-based primary care practices [see comments]. JAMA 1997; 277 (13): 1039-1045.

Giannini AJ, Loiselle RH, et al. Augmentation of haloperidol by ascorbic acid in phencyclidine intoxication. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 144 (9): 1207-9.

Gilfillan S, Claassen CA, et al. A comparison of psychotic and nonpsychotic substance users in the psychiatric emergency room. Psychiatr Serv 1998; 49 (6): 825-8.

Harris D, Batki S. Stimulant Psychosis: Symptom Profile and Acute Clinical Course. Am J Addictions 2000; 9 (1): 28-37.

Lowenstein DH, Massa SM, et al. Acute neurologic and psychiatric complications associated with cocaine abuse. Am J Med 1987; 83 (5): 841-6.

Mason PE, Kerns WP II. Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) Intoxication. Acad Emerg Med 2002; 9(7): 730-9.

Mendoza R, Miller B. Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Cocaine Use. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1992; 43: 677-678.

Miller NS, Owley T, Eriksen A. Working with drug/alcohol addicted patients in crisis. Psychiatr Ann 1994; 24: 592-597.

Perrone J, De Roos F, Jayaraman S, et al. Drug screening versus history in detection of substance use in the ED psychiatric patients. Am J Emerg Med 2001; 19: 49-51.

Prince B, Goetz C, et al. Drug Related Emergency Department Visits and Hospital Admissions. Am J Hosp Pharm 1992; 49: 1696-1700.

Raymond RC, Warren M, Morris RW, Leikin, JB. Periodicity of Presentations of Drugs of Abuse and Overdose in an Emergency Department. Clin Toxicol 1992; 30: 467-478.

Reynaud M, Schwan R, Loiseaux-Meunier MN, et al. Patients admitted to emergency services for drunkenness: moderate alcohol user or harmful drinkers? Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 96-99.

Sanguineti VR, Brooks MO. Factors related to emergency commitment of chronic mentally ill patients who are substance abusers. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1992; 43 (3): 237-241.

Sanguineti VR, Samuel SE. Reported prevalence of drug abuse comorbidity in a city-wide emergency rooms system. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1993; 19 (4): 443-50.

Schiller MJ, Shumway M, et al. Patterns of substance use among patients in an urban psychiatric emergency service. Psychiatr Serv 2000; 51 (1): 113-5.

Serper MR, Chou JC, et al. Symptomatic overlap of cocaine intoxication and acute schizophrenia at emergency presentation. Schizophr Bull 1999; 25 (2): 387-94.

Szuster RR, Schanbacher BL, et al. Characteristics of psychiatric emergency room patients with alcohol- or drug-induced disorders. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1990; 41(12): 1342-1345.

Teter CJ, Guthrie SK. A comprehensive review of MDMA and GHB: two common club drugs. Pharmacotherapy 2001; 21(12): 1486-1513.

Zealberg JJ, Brady KT. Substance abuse and emergency psychiatry. Psychiatr Clin N Am 1999; 23: 803-817.

Ziedonis D, Williams J. When psychosis and substance use coincide in the emergency service. Psych Iss Emerg Care Setting 2002: 3-13.

(e) Personality Disorders

Maloney C, Shah S, et al. Acute management of the self-cutter. Arch Emerg Med 1987; 4 (1): 39-45.McGirr A, Paris J, Lesage A, Renaud J, Turecki G. Risk Factors for Suicide Completion in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Case-Control Study of Cluster B Comorbidity and Impulsive Aggression. J Clin Psychiatry 2007; 68 (5): 721-729.

Rouse JD. Borderline and other dramatic personality disorders in the psychiatric emergency services. Psychiatr Ann 1994; 24: 598-602.

Soloff PH, Lis JA, Kelly T, Cornelius J, Ulrich R. Risk factors for suicidal behavior in borderline personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1994; 151(9): 1316-1323.

(f) Eating Disorders


Gray MCG, Witter J, Mehler PS. Detection and management of eating disorders in the emergency setting. J Am Assoc Emerg Psych 1997; 3: 73-77.

Johnson AS, Hillard JR. Prevalence of eating disorders in the psychiatric emergency room. Psychosomatics 1990; 31(3): 337-341.

(g) HIV

Angelino AF, Treisman GJ. Management of psychiatric disorders in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 15; 33(6): 847-856.

Bing EG, Burnam MA, Longshore D, et al. Psychiatric disorders and drug use among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in the United States. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001; 58(8): 721-728.

Doyle ME, Labbate LA. Incidence of HIV infection among patients with new-onset psychosis. Psychiatr Serv 1997; 48: 237-238.

Gifford AL, Collins R, Timberlake D, et al. Propensity of HIV Patients to Seek Urgent and Emergent Care. HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study Consortium. J Gen Int Med 2000; 15: 8330.

(h) Acquired Brain Injury

Borczuk P. Predictors of intracranial injury in patients with mild head trauma. Ann Emerg Med 1995; 25 (6): 731-6.

De Kruijk JR, Twijnstra A, Leffers P. Diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj 2001; 15(2): 99-106.

Snyder H, Robinson K, et al. Signs and symptoms of patients with brain tumors presenting to the emergency department. J Emerg Med 1993; 11(3): 253-8.


V.        Special Populations

(a) Child and Adolescent

Behar LJ, Shrier DK. Child and adolescent psychiatric emergencies: referral and discharge patterns. N J Med 1995; 92 (4): 236-9.

Bishop E, McNally G. An In-home Crisis Intervention Program For Children and their Families. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1993; 44: 182-184.

Brent D. Correlates of the Medical Lethality of Suicide Attempts in Children and Adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adol Psychiatry 1987;26 (1): 87-91.

Greenhill LL, Waslick B. Management of suicidal behavior in children and adolescents. Psychiatr Clin N Am 1997; 20: 641-666.

Halamandaris PV, Anderson TR. Children and adolescents in the psychiatric emergency setting. Psychiatr Clin N Am 1999; 22; 865-874.

Hillard JR, Slomowitz M, et al. A retrospective study of adolescents' visits to a general hospital psychiatric emergency service.  Am J Psychiatry 1987; 144 (4): 432-6.

Kalogerakis M. Emergency Evaluation of Adolescents. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1992; 43: 617-621.

Quinlan PE, Berney J, Milner K. An algorithm for the reduction and management of aggression in pediatric patients in the emergency room. Emer Psychiatry 2002; 8: 17-20.

Milner K, Katz DM. The state of child and adolescent emergency psychiatric services. Emerg Psychiatry 2002; 8: 5-9.

Ruffin JE, Spencer HR, et al. Crisis stabilization services for children and adolescents: a brokerage model to reduce admissions to state psychiatric facilities. Comm Ment Health J 1993; 29 (5): 433.

(b) Geriatric

Colenda CC, Greenwald BS, et al. Barriers to effective psychiatric emergency services for elderly persons. Psychiatr Serv 1997; 48 (3): 321-5.

Coyne AC, Gjertsen R. Characteristics of older adults referred to a psychiatric emergency outreach service. J Ment Health Adm 1993; 20 (3): 208-11.

Dziedzic JK, Brady WJ, Lindsay R, et al. The use of the Mini-Mental Status Examination in the ED evaluation of the elderly. Am J Emerg Med. 1998; 16: 686-689.

Elie M, Rousseau F, Cole M, et al. Prevalence and detection of delirium in elderly emergency department patients. CMAJ 2000 Oct 17; 163(8): 977-81.

Engelhart CI, Eisenstein N. Determination of closed ward placement for chronic geropsychiatric patients: cognitive and behavioral factors. J Nerv Ment Dis 1996; 184(3): 190-191.

Fox F, Auestad A. Geriatric Emergency Clinical Pharmacology. Emerg Med Clin N Am 1990; 8: 221-239.

Hustey FM, Meldon S, Palmer R. Prevalence and documentation of impaired mental status in elderly emergency department patients. Acad Emerg Med 2000; 7(10): 1166.

Kahn DA, Alexopoulos GS, Silver JM, et al. Treatment of agitation in elderly persons with dementia: a summary of the expert consensus guidelines. J Pract Psych Behav Hlth 1998: 265-276.

Kindermann SS, Dolder CR, Bailey A, et al. Pharmacological treatment of psychosis and agitation in elderly patients with dementia: Four decades of experience. Drugs Aging 2002; 19(4): 257-76.

Lewis LM, Miller DK, Morley JE, Nork MJ, Lasater LC. Unrecognized delirium in ED geriatric patients. Am J Emerg Med 1995; 13(2): 142-145.

Neugroschl J. Agitation: How to manage behavior disturbances in the older patient with dementia. Geriatrics 2002; 54: 33-37.

Puryear D, Lovitt R, et al. Characteristics of Elderly Persons Seen in an Urban Psychiatric Emergency Room. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1991; 42: 802-807.

Thienhaus OJ, Rowe C, Woellert P, Hillard JR. Geropsychiatric Emergency Services: Utilization and Outcome Predictors. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1988; 39 (12): 1301-1305.

Tueth MJ. Diagnosing psychiatric emergencies in the elderly. Am J Emerg Med 1994; 12(3): 364-369.

(c) Homeless

Acorn S. Mental and physical health of homeless persons who use emergency shelters in Vancouver. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1993; 44 (9): 854-7.

D'Amore J, Hung O, Chiang W, et al. The epidemiology of the homeless population and its impact on an urban emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 2001; 8(11): 1051-1055.

Kushel MB, Perry S, Bangsberg D, et al. Emergency department use among the homeless and marginally housed: results from a community-based study. Am J Public Health 2002; 92(5): 778-784.

Padgett DK, Struening EL. Influence of substance abuse and mental disorders on emergency room use by homeless adults. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1991; 42(8): 834-8.


VI.       Treatment


(a) General Treatment Papers

Allen MH. Definitive treatment in the psychiatric emergency service. Psychiatr Quart 1996; 67(3): 247-262.

Brooks MO, Sanguineti VR, et al. Providing short-term intensive treatment in public psychiatry. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1992; 43 (1): 74-6.

Dunn J. Psychiatric intervention in the community hospital emergency room. J Nurs Adm 1989; 19 (10): 36-40.

Forster P, King J. Definitive treatment of patients with serious mental disorders in an emergency service, Part I [see comments]. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1994; 45(9): 867-869.

Forster P, King J. Definitive Treatment of Patients with Serious Mental Disorders in an Emergency Service, Part II. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 1994; 45 (12): 1177-1178.

Gamino LA, Elkins GR, et al. Emergency management of mass psychogenic illness. Psychosomatics 1989; 30 (4): 446-449.

Kercher EE. Crisis Intervention in the Emergency Department. Psychiatr Aspects Emerg Med 1991; 9 (1): 219-232.

Merson S, Tyrer P, et al. Early intervention in psychiatric emergencies: a controlled clinical trial [see comments]. Lancet 1992; 339 (8805): 1311-4.

Tueth MJ. Management of behavioral emergencies. Am J Emerg Med 1995; 13 (3): 344-50.

(b) Psychopharmacology

Ashton H. Guidelines For the rational use of benzodiazepines: when and what to use. Drugs 1994; 48: 25-40.

Barbee JG, Mancuso DM, et al. Alprazolam as a neuroleptic adjunct in the emergency treatment of schizophrenia [published erratum appears in Am J Psychiatry 1992 Aug;149(8):1129]

Bodkin JA: Emerging uses For high potency benzodiazepines in psychotic disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 1990; 51: 357-362.

Brook S, Lucey JV, Gunn KP. Intramuscular ziprasidone compared with intramuscular haloperidol in the treatment of acute psychosis. Ziprasidone I.M. Study Group. J Clin Psychiatry 2000; 61(12): 933-941.

Caroff SN, Mann SC, Campbell EC, Sullivan KA. Movement disorders associated with atypical antipsychotic drugs. J Clin Psychiatry 2002; 63(suppl 4): 12-9.

Casey DE, Keeper GA. Neuroleptic side effects: acute extrapyramidal syndromes and tardive dyskinesia. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1988; 24(3): 471-475.

Covington EC. Anticonvulsants for neuropathic pain and detoxification. Cleve Clin J Med 1998; 65(suppl 1): S21-29.

Cross-National Collaborative Panic Study. Drug Treatment of Panic Disorder. Comparative efficacy of alprazolam, imipramine, and placebo. Second Phase Investigators [published erratum appears in Br J Psychiatry 1992 Nov; 161: 724]. BrJ Psychiatry 1992; 160: 191-202.

Currier GW. Atypical antipsychotic medications in the psychiatric emergency service. J Clin Psychiatry 2000; 61(suppl. 14): 21-26.

Delva NJ, Hawken ER. Preventing lithium intoxication. Guide for physicians. Can Fam Physician 2001; 47: 1595-1600.

Ellison JM, Pfaelzer C. Emergency pharmacotherapy: the evolving role of medications in the emergency department. New Dir Ment Health Serv 1995; 67: 87-98.

Ellison JM. SSRI Withdrawal Buzz. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1995; 55: 544-545.Ernst CL, Bird S, Goldberg JF, Ghaemi SN. The Prescription of Psychotropic Medications for Patients Discharged From a Psychiatric Emergency Service. J Clin Psychiatry 2006; 67 (5): 720-726.

Fialip J, Aumaitre O, et al. Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Seizures: Analysis of 48 Case Reports. Clin Neuropharmacology 1987; 10: 538.

Fleischhacker W, Roth S, et al. The Pharmacologic Treatment of Neuroleptic-Induced Akathisia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1990; 10: 12-21.

Gerner R. Treatment of Acute Mania. Psychiatr Clin N Am 1993; 16: 443-460.

Gilmer WS. Anticonvulsants in the treatment of mood disorders: assessing current and future roles. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2001; 2(10): 1597-1608.

Glick RL. Initiation of antidepressant in the emergency setting. Psychiatr Ann 2000; 30: 251-257.

Graeme KA. New drugs of abuse. Emerg Med Clinics N Am 2000; 18(4): 625-636.

Grunze H, Erfurth A, Amann B, et al. Intravenous valproate loading in acutely manic and depressed bipolar I patients. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1999; 19(4): 303-309.

Guelfi J, White C, et al. Effectiveness of Venlafaxine in Patients Hospitalized For Major Depression and Melancholia. J Clin Psychiatry 1995; 56: 450-458.

Gwirtsman H, Szuba M, et al. The Antidepressant Response to Tricyclics in Major Depressives is Accelerated with Adjunctive Use of Methylphenidate. Psychopharmacol Bull 1994; 30: 157-164.

Haddad P. Antidepressant discontinuation reactions. In: Thompson C. Discontinuation of antidepressant therapy: emerging complications and their relevance. J Clin Psychiatry 1998; 59: 541-548.

Hamilton MS, Opler LA. Akathisia, suicidality, and Fluoxetine. J Clin Psychiatry 1992; 53(11): 401-406.

Hirschfeld RM, Allen MH, McEvoy JP, et al. Safety and tolerability of oral loading divalproex sodium in acutely manic bipolar patients. J Clin Psychiatry 1999; 60(12): 815-818.

Johnson RE, McFarland BH. Lithium Use and Discontinuation in a Health Maintenance Organization. Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153 (8): 993-1000.

Kamin J, Manwani S,Hughes D. Extrapyramidal side effects in the psychiatric emergency service. Psychiatr Serv 2000; 51: 287-289.

Keck PE Jr, McElroy SL, Tugrul KC, et al. Valproate oral loading in the treatment of acute mania. J Clin Psych 1993; 54: 305-308.

Keck PE Jr, Mendlwicz J, Calabrese JR, et al. A review of randomized, controlled clinical trials in acute mania. J Affect Disord 2000; 59 (Suppl 1): S31-S37.

Keck PE Jr, Strakowski SM, Hawkins JM, et al. A pilot study of rapid lithium administration in the treatment of acute mania. Bipolar Disord 2001; 3(2): 68-72.

Olmedo R, Hoffman RS. Withdrawal syndromes. Emerg Med Clin N Am 2000; 18: 273-288.

Raja M, Azzoni A. Second-generation antipsychotics in the emergency care setting. A prospective naturalistic study. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2000; 22 (2); 107-114.

Ricard N, Sauriol L, et al. Direct Cost of Care For Patients With Schizophrenia Treated With Haloperidol in an emergency Unit. Psychiatr Serv 1999; 50(10): 1287-1288.

Rosen C, Ratliff A, et al. The efficacy of Intravenous droperidol in the pre-hospital setting. J Emerg Med 1997; 15: 13-17.

Segal S, Bola J, et al. Race, quality of care, and antipsychotic prescribing practices in psychiatric emergency services. Psychiatr Serv 1996; 47(3): 282-286.

Shaner R. Benzodiazepines in the psychiatric emergency setting. Psychiatr Ann 2000; 30: 268-275.

(c) Psychotherapy


Chambless DL, Ollendick TH. Empirically supported psychological interventions: controversies and evidence. Annu Rev Psychol 2001; 52: 685-716.

Rosenberg RC. Psychological Treatments in the Psychiatric Emergency Service. The Growth and Specialization of Emergency Psychiatry. M. H. Allen. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.  Fall: 1995.

Sulkowicz KJ. Psychodynamic issues in the emergency department. Psychiatr Clin N Am 1999; 22 (4): 911-22.


VII.     Suicide

Allard R, Marshall M, et al. Intensive Follow-up does not decrease the risk of repeat suicide attempts. Suicide Life Threat Behav 1992; 22 (3): 303-314.

Arango V, Underwood MD, Mann JJ. Biological alteration in the brainstem of suicides. Psychiatr Clin N Am 1997; 20: 581-593.

Birkhead G, Perper J, et al. The Emergency Department in Surveillance of Attempted Suicide: Findings and Methodologic Considerations. Public Health Reports 1993; 108: 323-331.

Bongar B, Maris RW, Berman AL, Litman RE, Silverman MM. Inpatient standards of care and the suicidal patient. Part I: General clinical formulations and legal considerations. Suicide Life Threat Behav 1993; 23(3): 245-256.

Bongar B, Maris RW, Berman AL, Litman RE. Outpatient standards of care and the suicidal patient. Suicide Life Threat Behav 1992; 22(4): 453-478.

Brown HN. The impact of suicide on therapists in training. Compr Psychiatry 1987; 28(2): 101-112.

Chemtob CM, Hamada RS, Bauer G, Kinney B, Torigoe RY. Patients' suicides: frequency and impact on psychiatrists. Am J Psychiatry 1988; 145(2): 224-228.

Clark DC, Young MA, Scheftner WA, Fawcett J,Fogg L. A field test of Motto's risk estimator for suicide. Am J Psychiatry 1987; 144(7): 923-926.

Conwell Y, Duberstein PR, Connor K, et al. Access to Firearms and Risk For Suicide in Middle-Aged and Older Adults. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2002; 10: 407-416.

De Hert M, McKenzie K, Peuskens J. Risk factors for suicide in young people suffering from schizophrenia. A long term follow-up study. Schizophr Res 2001; 47: 127-134.

Dhossche DM. Suicidal behavior in psychiatric emergency room patients. South Med J 2000; 93 (3): 310-4.

Elliott AJ, Pages KP, Russo J, Wilson LG, Roy-Byrne PP. A profile of medically serious suicide attempts. J Clin Psychiatry 1996; 57(12): 567-571.

Fawcett J, Clark DC, Busch KA. Assessing and treating the patients at risk for suicide. Psychiatr Ann 1993; 23: 244-255.

Fawcett J, Rosenblate R. Suicide within 24 hours after assessment in the emergency department: look for and manage anxiety. Psychiatr Ann 2000; 30 (4): 228-231.

Goldacre M, Seagroatt V, et al. Suicide After Discharge From Psychiatric Inpatient Care. Lancet 1993; 342 (8866): 283-286.

Goldstein R, Black D, et al. The Prediction of Suicide,  Sensitivity, Specificity, and Predictive Value of a Multivariate Model Applied to Suicide Among 1906 Patients with Affective Disorders.  Arch Gen Psychiatry 1991: 48 (5):418-422.

Hall KN, Syverud SA. Dealing with suicide calls. Ann Emerg Med 1990; 19(9): 183-184.

Hawley CJ, James DV, et al. Suicidal ideation as a presenting complaint. Associated diagnoses and characteristics in a casualty population [see comments]. Br J Psychiatry 1991; 159: 232-238.

Heila H, Isometsa ET, Henriksson MM, et al. Suicide victims with schizophrenia in different treatment phases and adequacy of antipsychotic medication. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999; 60(3): 200-8.

Hengeveld M, van Egmond M, et al. Suicide Risk in Female Suicide Attempts Not Responding to a Follow-Up Study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1991; 83: 142-144.

Henriksson M, Aro H, et al. Mental Disorders and Comorbidity in Suicide. Am J Psychiatry 1993; 150 (6): 935.

Heyd D, Bloch S. The ethics of suicide. In: Bloch S, Chodoff, editors. Psychiatric Ethics. Oxford Press, 1991: 243-264.

Hufford MR. Alcohol and suicidal behavior. Clin Psychol Rev 2001; 21: 797-811.

Hughes DH. Can the clinician predict suicide? Psychiatr Serv 1995; 46 (5): 449-51.

Ikeda RM, Kresnow MJ, Mercy JA, et al. Medical conditions and nearly lethal suicide attempts. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2001; 32 (suppl 1): 60-67.

Isometsa E, Henriksson M, et al. Suicide in Bipolar Disorder in Finland. Am J Psychiatry 1994; 151 (7): 1020-1024.

Isometsa E, Henriksson M, et al. Suicide in Major Depression.  Am J Psychiatry 1994; 151 (4): 530-536.

Jacobs DG, Jamison KR, Baldessarini RJ, et al. Suicide: Clinical/Risk Management Issues For Psychiatrists-Grand Rounds. CNS Spectrums 2000; 5: 32-53.

Jacobs, DG, Jamison, KR, Baldessarini, RJ: Suicide: Clinical/Risk Management Issues For Psychiatrists. CNS Spectrums 2000; 5: 2, 39.

Kapur S, Mieczkowski T, Mann JJ. Antidepressant medications and the relative risk of suicide attempt and suicide. JAMA 1992; 268(24): 3441-3445.

Kaye NS, Soreff SM. The psychiatrist's role, responses, and responsibilities when a patient commits suicide. Am J Psychiatry 1991; 148(6): 739-743.

Klerman GL. Clinical Epidemiology of Suicide. J Clin Psychiatry. 1987; 48: 33-38.

Nordstrom P, Samuelsson M, et al. Survival analysis of suicide risk after attempted suicide. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1995; 91 (5): 336-40.

Nordstrom P, Gustavsson P, et al. Temperamental vulnerability and suicide risk after attempted suicide." Suicide Life Threat Behav 1996; 26 (4): 380-94.

Peterson LG, Bongar B. Repetitive suicidal crises: characteristics of repeating versus nonrepeating suicidal visitors to a psychiatric emergency service. Psychopathology 1990; 23 (3): 136-145.

Rives W. Emergency department assessment of suicidal patients. Psychiatr Clin N Am 1999; 22: 779-787.

Robertson BM, Campbell W, et al. Risk versus motivation: the emergency room treatment of attempted suicide. Can J Psychiatry 1987; 32 (2): 136-42.

Schnyder U, Valach L. Suicide attempters in a psychiatric emergency room population. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1997; 19 (2): 119-29.

Soukas J, Lonnqvist J. Outcome of attempted suicide and psychiatric consultation: risk factors and suicide morality during a five-year follow-up.  Acta Psychiatr Scand 1991; 84: 545-9.

Stanley B, Gameroff MJ, Michalsen V, et la. Are suicide attempters who self-mutilate a unique population? Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 427-432.

Van der Sande R, Buskens E, et al. Psychosocial intervention following suicide attempt: a systematic review of treatment interventions. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1997; 96 (1): 43-50.

Van der Sande R, van Rooijen L, et al. Intensive in-patient and community intervention versus routine care after attempted suicide. A randomised controlled intervention study. Br J Psychiatry 1997; 171: 35-41.


VIII.    Interpersonal Violence

Bell CC, Jenkins EJ, et al. Response of emergency rooms to victims of interpersonal violence. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1994; 45 (2): 142-6.

Briere J, Woo R, McRae B,Foltz J, Sitzman R. Lifetime victimization history, demographics, and clinical status in female psychiatric emergency room patients. J Nerv Ment Dis 1997; 185(2): 95-101.

Briere J, Zaidi LY. Sexual abuse histories and sequelae in female psychiatric emergency room patients [see comments]. Am J Psychiatry 1989; 146 (12): 1602-6.

Butterfield MI, Panzer PG, Forneris CA. Victimization of women and its impact on assessment and treatment in the psychiatric emergency setting. Psychiatr Clin N Am 1999; 23: 875-896.

Cohen JH, Friedman DI. Health care use by perpetrators of domestic violence. J Emerg Med 2002; 22: 313-317.

Dearwater SR, Coben JH, et al. Prevalence of intimate partner abuse in women treated at community hospital emergency departments. JAMA 1998; 280 (5): 433-8.Edens JF, Douglas KS. Assessment of Interpersonal Aggression and Violence: Introduction to the Special Issue. Assessment 2006; 13 (3): 221-226.

Elliot L, Nerney M, Jones T, et al. Barriers to screening for domestic violence. J Gen Intern Med 2002; 17: 112-116.

Feldhaus KM, Koziol-McLain J, et al. Accuracy of 3 brief screening questions for detecting partner violence in the emergency department [see comments]. Ann Intern Med 1995; 123(10): 737-46.

Heinzer MM, Krimm JR. Barriers to screening for domestic violence in and emergency department. Holist Nurs Pract 2002; 16: 24-33.

Keller LE. Invisible victims: battered women in psychiatric and medical emergency rooms. Bull Menninger Clin 1996; 60(1): 1-21.

Linhorst DM, Scott LP. Assaultive Behavior in State Psychiatric Hospitals: Differences Between Forensic and Nonforensic Patients. J Interpers Violence. 2004; 19 (8): 857-874.

Osterman JE, Barbiaz J,Johnson P. Emergency psychiatry: emergency interventions for rape victims. Psychiatr Serv 2001; 52(6): 733-4, 40.


IX.       Disaster Psychiatry

Austin LS, Godleski LS. Therapeutic approaches for survivors of disaster. Psychiatr Clin N Am 1999; 22 (4): 897-910.

Call JA, Pfefferbaum B. Lessons from the first two years of Project Heartland, Oklahoma's mental health response to the 1995 bombing. Psychiatr Serv 1999; 50 (7): 953-5.

Cohen NL. Lessons Learned From Providing Disaster Counseling After TWA Flight 800. Psychiatr Serv 1997; 48(4): 461-462.

DiGiovanni C., Jr. Domestic terrorism with chemical or biological agents: psychiatric aspects. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156 (10): 1500-5.


X.        Disposition and Outcome

Allen MH, Dacpano G. Emergency Psychiatry Review: Compliance with PES Aftercare Resolutions. Emerg Psychiatry 1996; 2(1): 8-9.

Andreoli AV, Muehlebach A, et al. Crisis intervention response and long-term outcome: a pilot study. Compr Psychiatry 1992; 33 (6): 388-96.

Axelrod S, Wetzler S. Factors associated with better compliance with psychiatric aftercare. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1989; 40 (4):397-401.

Baker DW, Stevens CD, et al. Patients who leave a public hospital emergency department without being seen by a physician. Causes and consequences [see comments]. JAMA 1991; 266(8): 1085-1090.

Coverdale J, Falloon I. Home or hospital-based emergency care for chronic psychiatric patients? N Z Med J 1993; 106 (957): 218-9.

Cramer J, Rosenheck R. Compliance with medication regimens for mental and physical disorder. Psychiatr Serv 1998; 49: 196-201.

Dobmeyer TW, McKee PA, Miller RD, Westcott JS. The effect of enrollment in a prepaid health plan on utilization of a community crisis intervention center by chronically mentally ill individuals. Community Ment Health J 1990; 26(2):129-137.

Dobscha SK, Delucchi K, et al. Adherence with referrals for outpatient follow-up from a VA psychiatric emergency room. Community Ment Health J 1999; 35(5): 451.

Elliott RL. Patient dumping, COBRA, and the public psychiatric hospital. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1993; 44 (2): 155-8.

Engleman NB, Jobes DA, et al. Clinicians' decision making about involuntary commitment. Psychiatr Serv 1998; 49 (7): 941-5.

Faulkner LR, McFarland BH, et al. An empirical study of emergency commitment. Am J Psychiatry 1989; 146 (2): 182-6.

Fichtner CG, Flaherty JA. Emergency Psychiatry Training and the Decision to Hospitalize. Acad Psychiatry 1993; 17 (3): 130-137.

Fields S, Weisman GK. Crisis Residential Treatment: An Alternative to Hospitalization. New Directions For Mental Health. M. Allen. San Francisco, Jossey Bass. 1995: 67.

Francis E, Marchand W, et al. Utilization and outcome in an overnight psychiatric observation program at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Psychiatr Serv 2000; 51(1): 92-95.

Frazier RS, Casper ES. A comparative study of clinical events as triggers for psychiatric readmission of multiple recidivists. Psychiatr Serv 1998; 49(11):1423-1425.

Garbrick L, Levitt MA, Barrett M, Graham L. Agreement between emergency physicians and psychiatrists regarding admission decisions. Acad Emerg Med 1996; 3(11): 1027-1030.

Geller JL. "Anyplace but the state hospital": examining assumptions about the benefits of admission diversion [see comments]. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1991; 42 (2): 145-52.

Geller JL, Fisher WH, et al. Second-generation deinstitutionalization, II: The impact of Brewster v. Dukakis on correlates of community and hospital utilization [see comments]. Am J Psychiatry 1990; 147(8): 988.

Genell Andren K, Rosenqvist U. Heavy users of an emergency department--a two year follow-up study. Soc Sci Med 1987; 25 (7): 825-31.

Hansen TE, Elliott KD. Frequent psychiatric visitors to a Veterans Affairs medical Center emergency care unit. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1993; 44 (4): 372-5.

Hillard JR, Slomowitz M, et al. Determinants of emergency psychiatric admission for adolescents and adults. Am J Psychiatry 1988; 145 (11): 1416-9.

Lamb HR, Shaner R, Elliott DM, DeCuir WJ, Jr.,Foltz JT. Outcome for psychiatric emergency patients seen by an outreach police--mental health team. New Dir Ment Health Serv 2001; 90: 67-76.

Lamb HR, Shaner R, et al. Outcome For Psychiatric Emergency Patients Seen by an Outreach Police-Mental Health Team. Psychiatric Services 1995; 46(12): 1267-71.

Lambert MT, Bonner J. Characteristics and six-month outcome of patients who use suicide threats to seek hospital admission. Psychiatr Serv 1996; 47(8): 871-873.

Lambert MT. Seven-year outcomes of patients evaluated for suicide. Psychiatr Serv 2002; 53: 92-94.

Lyons JS, Stutesman J, et al. Predicting psychiatric emergency admissions and hospital outcome. Med Care 1997; 35 (8): 792-800.

McNiel DE, Myers RS, et al. The role of violence in decisions about hospitalization from the psychiatric emergency room. Am J Psychiatry 1992; 149(2): 207-12.

Nelson EW, Van Cleve S, et al. Improving the use of early follow-up care after emergency department visits. A randomized trial. Am J Dis Child 1991; 145: 437-439.

Olfson M. Emergency room dispositions of professionally referred psychiatric patients. Psychiatr Quart 1988; 59 (3): 225-34.

Owens D, Dennis M, et al. Self-poisoning patients discharged from accident and emergency: risk factors and outcome. J Royal College Physicians Lond 1991; 25 (3): 218-22.

Rabinowitz J, Slyuzberg M, Salamon I, Dupler SE. Differential use of admission status in a psychiatric emergency room. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law 1995; 23(4): 595-606.

Rabinowitz J, Massad A, et al. Factors influencing disposition decisions for patients seen in a psychiatric emergency service. Psychiatr Serv 1995; 46 (7): 712-8.

Rabinowitz J, Mark M, et al. How individual clinicians make admission decisions in psychiatric emergency rooms. J Psychiatr Res 1994; 28 (5): 475-82.

Rabinowitz J, Slyuzberg M, et al. A method for understanding admission decision making in a psychiatric emergency room. Psychiatr Serv 1995; 46(10): 1055-1060.

Reinish LW, Ciccone JR. Involuntary hospitalization and police referrals to a psychiatric emergency department. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law 1995; 23(2): 289-298.

Sanguineti VR, Samuel SE, Schwartz SL, Robeson MR. Retrospective study of 2,200 involuntary psychiatric admissions and readmissions. Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153(3): 392-396.

Schneider S, Ross I. Ultra-Short Hospitalization For Severely Mentally Ill Patients. Psychiatr Serv 1996; 47: 137-38.

Schnyder U, Valach L, et al. Coping and the decision to hospitalize in emergency psychiatry. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1995; 17 (5): 362-70.

Schuckman A, Fontanarosa P. Frequent Fliers: A Protocol For the Management of Frequent Visitors to a Community Hospital Emergency Department. Ann Emerg Med 1989; 18(4): 435.

Segal SP, Akutsu PD, et al. Factors associated with involuntary return to a psychiatric emergency service within 12 months. Psychiatr Serv 1998; 49 (9): 1212-7.

Segal SP, Egley L, et al. Factors in the quality of patient evaluations in general hospital psychiatric emergency services. Psychiatr Serv 1995; 46 (11): 1144-8.

Slagg NB. Characteristics of emergency room patients that predict hospitalization or disposition to alternative treatments. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1993; 44 (3): 252-6.

Sledge WH, Tebes J, et al. Day Hospital/Crisis Respite Care Versus Inpatient Care, Part I:  Clinical Outcomes. Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153(8): 1065-73.

Sledge WH, Tebes J, et al. Day Hospital/Crisis Respite Care Versus Inpatient Care, Part II: Service Utilization and Costs. Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153(8): 1074-1083.

Snowden LR, Hu TW, et al. Emergency care avoidance: ethnic matching and participation in minority-serving programs. Community Ment Health J 1995; 31(5): 463-73.

Solomon P, Gordon B. Follow-up of outpatient referrals from a psychiatric emergency room. Soc Work Health Care 1987; 13 (1): 57-67.

Solomon P, Gordon B. Comparison of outpatient care of discharged state hospital and non-hospitalized psychiatric emergency room patients. Psychiatr Quart 1988; 59 (1): 23-36.

Solomon P, Gordon B. Outpatient compliance of psychiatric emergency room patients by presenting problems. Psychiatr Quart 1988; 59 (4): 271-83.

Somoza E, Somoza JR. A neural-network approach to predicting admission decisions in a psychiatric emergency room. Med Decis Making 1993; 13 (4): 273-80.

Strakowski SM, Lonczak HS, et al. The effects of race on diagnosis and disposition from a psychiatric emergency service. J Clin Psychiatry 1995; 56 (3): 101-7.

Strakowski SM, Hawkins JM, et al. The effects of race and information variance on disagreement between psychiatric emergency service and research diagnoses in first-episode psychosis. J Clin Psychiatry 1997; 58(10):457-463.

Watson MA, Segal SP, et al. Police referral to psychiatric emergency services and its effect on disposition decisions. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1993; 44 (11): 1085-90.

Way BB, Banks S. Clinical factors related to admission and release decisions in psychiatric emergency services. Psychiatr Serv 2001; 52: 214-218.

Way BB, Evans ME, et al. Factors Predicting Referral to Inpatient or Outpatient Treatment From Psychiatric Emergency Services. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1992; 43(7): 703-708.

Way BB, Evans ME, et al. An analysis of police referrals to 10 psychiatric emergency rooms. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law 1993; 21 (4): 389-97.

White CL, Bateman A, et al. Factors associated with admission to public and private hospitals from a psychiatric emergency screening site. Psychiatr Serv 1995; 46(5): 467-472.

Yu-Chin R, Arcuni O. Short-Term Hospitalization For Suicidal Patients Within a Crisis Intervention Service. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1990; 12: 153-158.

XI.       Systems Issues

(a)   Organization of services

Bengelsdorf H, Church JO, et al. The cost effectiveness of crisis intervention. Admission diversion savings can offset the high cost of service. J Nerv Ment Dis 1993; 181(12): 757-762.

Baker B, Rochon J Length of stay, short stay units and psychiatric emergency admissions. Can J Psychiatry 1989; 34 (1): 39-42.Bengelsdorf H, Alden DC A Mobile Crisis Unit in the Psychiatric Emergency Room. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1987; 38: 662-665.

Bernstein E, Bernstein J, Levenson S. Project ASSERT-An ED based intervention to increase access to primary care, preventive services, and the substance abuse treatment system. Ann Emerg Med 1997; 30: 181-189.

Birnie WA, Matsuno K. The psychiatric acute observation unit in a general hospital. Can J Psychiatry 1988; 33 (8): 707-10.Bond GR, Witheridge TF, et al. A comparison of two crisis housing alternatives to psychiatric hospitalization. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1989; 40 (2): 177-83.

Borges WJ, Summers LC, et al. Psychiatric emergency service. Using available resources. J Nurs Adm 1995; 25 (1): 31-7.

Breslow RE, Klinger BI, et al. Crisis hospitalization on a psychiatric emergency service. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1993; 15 (5): 307-15.

Breslow RE, Klinger BI, et al. Crisis Hospitalization in a Psychiatric Emergency Service. The Growth and Specialization of Emergency Psychiatry. M. H. Allen (Ed.). San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.  1995: 67.

Chiu T, Primeau C. A Psychiatric Mobile Crisis Unit in New York City: Description and Assessment, with Implications For Mental Health in the 1990s. Int J Soc Psychiatr 1991; 37: 251-258.

Cohen NL. Emergency Psychiatric Intervention on the Street. New Directions For Mental Health Services. N. L. Cohen. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Publisher. Winter 1991.

Currier GW, Allen MH. American Association For Emergency Psychiatry survey I: psychiatric emergency service structure and function. American Psychiatric Association, New Orleans, LA. 1999.

Deane MW, Steadman HJ, et al. Emerging partnerships between mental health and law enforcement. Psychiatr Serv 1999; 50 (1): 99-101.

DeMasi ME, Way BB. Evaluation of the Comprehensive Psychiatric Emergency Programs. Albany, NY, Bureau of Evaluation and Services Research, New York State Office of Mental Health. 1994.

Dublin S, Ananth J, et al. A Three-Day Crisis Resolution Unit. Indian J Psychiatry 1990; 32: 30-34.

Fisher WH, Geller JL, et al. Empirically assessing the impact of mobile crisis capacity on state hospital admissions. Community Ment Health J 1990; 26 (3): 245-53.

Fitzgerald M. Structuring psychiatric emergency services for smaller communities in response to managed care. Psychiatr Serv 1996; 47(3): 233-234.

Geller JL, Fisher WH, et al. A national survey of mobile crisis services and their evaluation. Psychiatr Serv 1995; 46 (9): 893-7.

Gillig PM. The Spectrum of Mobile Outreach and Its Role in the Emergency Service. The Growth and Specialization of Emergency Psychiatry. M. Allen (ed.). San Francisco, Jossey Bass. 1995; 67.

Gillig PM, Hillard JR, et al. The psychiatric emergency service holding area: effect on utilization of inpatient resources. Am J Psychiatry 1989; 146 (3): 369-72.

Gillig PM, Dumaine M, et al. Whom do mobile crisis services serve? Hosp Community Psychiatry 1990; 41 (7): 804-5.

Goldberg RJ, Fogel BS. Integration of general hospital psychiatric services with freestanding psychiatric hospitals. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1989; 40 (10): 1057-61.

Hillard JR. The past and future of psychiatric emergency services in the U.S. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1994; 45 (6): 541-3.

Hughes DH. Trends and treatment models in emergency psychiatry. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1993; 44 (10): 927-8.

Jayaram G, Tien A, et al. Elements of Successful Short-Stay Inpatient Psychiatric Service. Psychiatr Serv 1996; 47 (4): 407-412.

Johnson S, Thornicroft G. Emergency psychiatric services in England and Wales. BMJ 1995; 311 (7000): 287-8.

Kane BL, Kelly K, et al. Implementing an Extended Crisis Evaluation Unit in the Emergency Department in Response to New Jersey Screening Law. Journal of Emergency Nursing 1993; 19(5):426-30.

Kates N, Eaman S, et al. An Integrated Regional Emergency Psychiatry Service. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1996; 18: 251-256.

Lambert M. Psychiatric Crisis Intervention in the General Emergency Service of a Veterans Affairs Hospital. Psychiatr Serv 1995; 46 (3): 283-284.

Musisi SM, Wasylenki DA, et al. A psychiatric intensive care unit in a psychiatric hospital. Can J Psychiatry 1989; 34 (3): 200-4.

Oldham JM, DeMasi ME. An Integrated Approach to Emergency Psychiatric Care. Growth and Specialization of Emergency Psychiatry. M. H. Allen (ed.). San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.  1995; 67.

Oldham JM, Lin A, et al. Comprehensive psychiatric emergency services. Psychiatr Quart 1990; 61 (1): 57-67.

Oyewumi LK, Odejide O, et al. Psychiatric emergency services in a Canadian city: I. Prevalence and patterns of use [see comments]. Can J Psychiatry 1992; 37 (2): 91-5.

Rae RP. Level System For Psychiatric Emergency Care. Emerg Psychiatry 1997; 3 (3): 52-3.

Ries R. Advantages of separating the triage function from the psychiatric emergency service. Psychiatr Serv 1997; 48 (6): 755-6.

Scott RL. Evaluation of a Mobile Crisis Program:  Effectiveness, Efficiency and Consumer Satisfaction. Psychiatr Serv 2000; 51 (9): 1153-1156.

Snyder JA. Specialized services for psychiatric patients in the emergency department [see comments]. J Emerg Nurs 1992; 18 (6): 535-6.

Stroul BA. Crisis Residential Services in a Community Support System: Report on the NIMH Crisis Residential Services Project. Rockville, MD, National Institute of Mental Health Community Support Program. 1987.

Stroul BA. Residential Crisis Services:  A Review. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 1988; 39 (10): 1095-9.

Stroul BA. Psychiatric Crisis Response Systems: A Descriptive Study. Rockville, MD, Community Support Program Center For Mental Health Services 1993; 106.

Stroul BA. (ed.) Profiles of Psychiatric Crisis Response Systems. Rockville, MD, National Institute of Mental Health. 1991.

Stutesman JR, Yohanna D. An emergency psychiatry and crisis intervention service located in the emergency department: Northwestern's experience. J Emerg Nurs 1994; 20: 22A–30A.

Surles RC, Petrila J, et al. Redesigning emergency room psychiatry in New York. Administration & Policy in Mental Health 1994; 22 (2): 97-105.

Wellin E, Slesinger DP, et al. Psychiatric emergency services: evolution, adaptation and proliferation. Soc Sci Med 1987; 24 (6): 475-82.

Zealberg JJ, Santos AB, et al. Benefits of Mobile Crisis Programs. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 1993; 44 (1):16-17.

Zealberg JJ. A Mobile Crisis Program:  Collaboration Between Emergency Psychiatric Services and Police. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1992; 43 (6): 612-615.

(b)   Managed Care

Breslow RE, Klinger BI, et al. Characteristics of managed care patients in a psychiatric emergency service. Psychiatr Serv 1996; 47 (11): 1259-1261.

Fuller MG. Emergency Psychiatry: A managed care perspective. Psychiatr Ann 2000; 30 (4): 276-280.Lazarus A. Managed competition and access to emergency psychiatric care. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1993; 44 (12): 1134-6.

Nicholson J, Young SD, et al. Impact of Medicaid Managed Care on Child and Adolescent Emergency Mental Health Screening in Massachusetts. Psychiatr Serv 1996; 47(12): 1344-1350. Published erratum appears in Psychiatr Serv 1997; 48(2): 230.

Rosenzweig L. Psychiatric triage: a cost-effective approach to quality management in mental health. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 1992; 30 (6): 5-8.

Schuster JM. Frustration or Opportunity? The Impact of Managed Care on Emergency Psychiatry. New Directions For Mental Health Services. M. H. Allen (ed.). San Francisco, Jossey-Bass. 1995; 67.

(c)    Administrative

Bindman AB, Grumbach K, et al. Consequences of queuing for care at a public hospital emergency department [see comments]. JAMA 1991; 266 (8): 1091-6.

Bitterman RA. HCFA's New Guidelines For Enforcement of EMTALA. ED Legal Letter 1998; 9 (12): 113-20.

Boudreaux ED, McCabe B. Critical Incident Stress Management: I. Interventions and effectiveness. Psychiatr Serv 2000; 51:1095-1097.

McCabe B, Boudreaux ED. Critical Incident Stress Management: II. Developing a team. Psychiatr Serv 2000; 51: 1499-1500.Puryear DA. Proposed standards in emergency psychiatry. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1992; 43 (1): 14-5.

Rodriguez AR. Evolutions in utilization and quality management. A crisis for psychiatric services? Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1989; 11 (4): 256-63.

(d)   Other


Adityanjee N, Wig N, et al. Non-recording of socio-demographic variables in the emergency room setting. Int J Soc Psychiatry 1987; 33 (1): 30-2.

Allen MH. Bellevue Comprehensive Psychiatric Emergency Program Annual Report. New York, NY, Bellevue Hospital Center. 1997.

Allen MH. Level I Psychiatric Emergency Services: Tools of the Crisis Sector. Psychiatr Clin N Am 1999; 22 (4): 713-734.

Anshus JS. ED security. Am J Emerg Med 1996; 14(3): 329.

Babcock Irvin C, Wyer PC, Gerson LW. Preventive care in the emergency department, Part II: Clinical preventive services--an emergency medicine evidence-based review. Society For Academic Emergency Medicine Public Health and Education Task Force Preventive Services Work Group. Acad Emerg Med 2000; 7(9): 1042-1054.

Berren MR, Santiago JM, et al. Health care utilization by persons with severe and persistent mental illness. Psychiatr Serv 1999; 50(4): 559-561.

Brasic JR, Fogelman D. Clinician Safety. Psych Clin N Am 1999; 22: 923-941.

Chingon HT. Emergency room psychiatric consultation data base. Hawaii Med J 1993; 52 (12): 352, 354.

Cook PJ, Lawrence BA, et al. The medical costs of gunshot injuries in the United States. JAMA 1999; 282 (5): 447-54.

Flannery RB et al. Characteristics of staff victims of patient assault: ten year analysis of the Assaulted Staff Action Program (ASAP). Psychiatr Quart 2001; 72(3): 237-248.

Flannery RB. The Assaulted Staff Action Program (ASAP): ten year empirical support for critical incident stress management (CISM). Int J Emerg Ment Health 2001; 3(1): 5-10.

Gustafson DH, Sainfort F, et al. Measuring quality of care in psychiatric emergencies: construction and evaluation of a Bayesian index. Health Serv Res 1993; 28 (2): 131-58.

Hansburg F, Nelson L, et al. Two Sides of a Crisis: Consumer and Professional Views of Screening Services. Psychiatric Rehab J 1996; 20 (1): 19-23.

Hoffman R, Wipfler M, et al. Has the New York State Triplicate Benzodiazepine Prescription Regulation Influenced Sedative-Hypnotic Overdoses? New York State Journal of Medicine 1991; 91.

Karshmer JF, Hales A. Role of the psychiatric clinical nurse specialist in the emergency department. Clin Nurse Spec 1997; 11 (6): 264-8.

Kaskey G. Gold award. Brief psychiatric inpatient care for acutely disturbed patients. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1987; 38 (11): 1203-6.

Kessler HS, et al: Past-year use of outpatient services for psychiatric problems in the National Comorbidity Survey. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156: 115-123.

Kordilla WJ. A Forty-hour psychiatric assessment nurse position in a suburban level I trauma center's emergency department." J Emerg Nurs 1994; 20 (1): 20A, 22A.

McNiel DE, Hatcher C, et al. Characteristics of persons referred by police to the psychiatric emergency room. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1991; 42 (4): 425-7.

Noble RES. Temporal Fluctuations in Suicide Calls to a Crisis Intervention Service. Suicide Life Threat Behav 1996; 26 (4): 415-423.

Salamon I, Kennedy R Computer linkage of psychiatric emergency rooms. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1992; 43 (4): 397-9.

Sales GN. A comparison of referrals by police and other sources to a psychiatric emergency service. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1991; 42 (9): 950-2.

Sateia MJ, Gustafson Dh, et al. Quality assurance for psychiatric emergencies. An analysis of assessment and feedback methodologies. Psychiatr Clin N Am 1990; 13 (1): 35-48.

Steadman HJ, Deane MW, et al. Comparing outcomes of major models of police responses to mental health emergencies. Psychiatr Serv 2000; 51 (5): 645-9.

Stebbins LA, Hardman GL. A survey of psychiatric consultations at a suburban emergency room. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1993; 15 (4): 234-42.

Stern RS, Weissman JS, et al. The emergency department as a pathway to admission for poor and high-cost patients [see comments]. JAMA 1991; 266 (16): 2238-43.


XII.     Education

Brasch JS, Ferencz JC. Training issues in emergency psychiatry. Psychiatr Clin N Am 1999; 22 (4): 941-54.

Brasch JS, Allen MH, et al. Guidelines For Resident Training in Emergency Psychiatry. .American Association of Directors of Psychiatry Residency Training, Los Angeles. 1999.

Hillard J, Zitek B, et al. Residency Training in Emergency Psychiatry. Acad Psychiatry 1993; 17: 125-129.

Warner MD, Peabody CA. Reliability of diagnoses made by psychiatric residents in a general emergency department. Psychiatr Serv 1995; 46 (12): 1284-6.

Weissberg MP. The meagerness of physicians' training in emergency psychiatric intervention. Acad Med 1990; 65 (12): 747-50.

Weissberg MP. Weaknesses in emergency psychiatric education: A solution. J Psychiatr Education 1988; 12 (2).

Weissberg MP. Emergency psychiatry: a critical educational omission [editorial]. Ann Intern Med 1991; 114 (3): 246-7.


XIII.    General Topics in Emergency Psychiatry

Allen MH, Carpenter D, Sheets JL, Miccio S, Ross R. What Do Consumers Say They Want and Need During a Psychiatric Emergency? J Psychiatr Practice 2003; 9(1):39-58.

Allen MH, Dacpano G. Emergency Psychiatry Review: Medication Compliance. Emergency Psychiatry 2000; 2(2): 1, 14, 15.

Baranksi P, Noyer J. The Concept of Emergency Psychiatry (FRENCH). Soins Psychiatr 1993-1994; 158-159: 4-9.

Barton G. The Practice of Emergency Psychiatry in Rural Areas. Emerg Psychiatry 1992; 43 (10): 965-966.

Breslow RE, Klinger BI, et al. The disruptive behavior disorders in the Psychiatric Emergency Service. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1999; 21 (3): 214-9.

Claassen CA, Hughes CW, Gilfillan S, et al. The nature of help-seeking during psychiatric emergency service visits by a patient and an accompanying adult. Psychiatr Serv 2000; 51: 924-927.

Dhossche DM, Ghani SO. Who brings patients to the psychiatric emergency room? Psychosocial and psychiatric correlates. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1998; 20(4): 235-240.

Ellison JM, Hughes DH, et al. An emergency psychiatry update. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1989; 40 (3): 250-60.

Ellison JM, Blum NR, et al. Frequent repeaters in a psychiatric emergency service. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1989; 40 (9): 958-60.

Fawcett J. Psychiatry is becoming emergency psychiatry. Psychiatr Ann 1994; 24 (11): 569-570.

Fisher H. Psychiatric Crises: Making the Most of an Emergency Room Visit. J Psychosoc Nursing 1989; 27 (11): 4-8.

Gillig PM, Hillard JR, et al. Clinicians' self-reported reactions to psychiatric emergency patients: effect on treatment decisions. Psychiatr Quart 1990; 61(2): 155-62.

Gillig, PM, Grubb P, et al. What do psychiatric emergency patients really want and how do they feel about what they get? Psychiatr Quart 1990; 61 (3): 189-96.

Holohean E, Pulice R, et al. Utilization of Acute Inpatient Psychiatric Services: "Heavy Users" in New York State. Administration and Policy in Mental Health 1991; 18(3): 173-181.

Michalon M, Richman A. Factors Affecting Length of Stay in a Psychiatric Emergency Service. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1990; 12: 303-308.

Morgan SL. Families' experiences in psychiatric emergencies. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1989; 40 (12): 1265-9.

Morgan SL. Determinants of family treatment choice and satisfaction in psychiatric emergencies. Am J Orthopsychiatry 19990;  60 (1): 96-107.

Rosenberg RC. The therapeutic alliance and the psychiatric emergency room crisis as opportunity. Psychiatr Ann 1994; 24: 610-614.

Rosenberg RC, Kesselman M. The Therapeutic Alliance and the Psychiatric Emergency Room. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1993; 44: 78-80.

Sitzman BT, Burch EA Jr., et al. Rates of sexually transmitted diseases among patients in a psychiatric emergency service. Psychiatr Serv 1995; 46 (2): 136-40.

Solomon P, Beck S. Patients' perceived service needs when seen in a psychiatric emergency room. Psychiatr Quart 1989; 60 (3): 215-26.

Sullivan PF, Bulik CM, et al. Characteristics of repeat users of a psychiatric emergency service. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1993; 44 (4): 376-80.

Surles RC, McGurrin MC. Increased use of psychiatric emergency services by young chronic mentally ill patients. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1987; 38 (4): 401-5.

Sweet V, Pedroza K. Psychiatric patients in emergency departments: Orange county, California's experience. J Emerg Nurs 1993; 19 (5): 392.

Thienhaus OJ, Ford J, et al. Factors related to patients' decisions to visit the psychiatric emergency service. Psychiatr Serv 1995; 46 (12): 1227-8.

Tschacher W. The dynamics of psychosocial crises: time courses and causal models. J Nerv Ment Dis 1996; 184(3):172-179.

Weissberg, M. Chained in the emergency department: the new asylum for the poor. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1991; 42 (3): 317-9.

Wilson JE, Tobacyk JJ. Lunar phases and crisis center telephone calls. J Soc Psychol 1990; 130(1):47-51.

Wolfe HL, Sorensen JL. Dual diagnosis patients in the urban psychiatric emergency room. J Psychoactive Drugs 1989; 21 (2): 169-75.

Yates BD, Nordquist CR, et al. Feigned Psychiatric Symptoms in the Emergency Room. Psychiatr Serv 1996; 47 (9): 998-1000.

Young FP, Wagner MB, et al. Ambulatory visits to hospital emergency departments. JAMA 1996; 276 (6): 460-465.


XIV.    Medicolegal Issues


(a) Commitment and certification

Appelbaum PS. Can the Police Assist in Detaining Persons For Involuntary Civil Commitment? Psychiatr Serv 1997; 48(1):17-18.

Cleveland S, Mulvey EP, et al. Do dangerousness-oriented commitment laws restrict hospitalization of patients who need treatment? A test [see comments]. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1989; 40(3): 266-271.

Hoge SK, Sachs G, et al. Limitations on psychiatrists' discretionary civil commitment authority by the Stone and dangerousness criteria. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988; 45(8): 764-769.

Hoge SK, Appelbaum PS, et al. An empirical comparison of the stone and dangerousness criteria for civil commitment. Am J Psychiatry 1989; 146 (2): 170-5.

Isohanni M, Nieminen P, et al. The dilemma of civil rights versus the right to treatment: questionable involuntary admissions to a mental hospital. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1991; 83(4):256-61.

Lidz CW, Mulvey EP, et al. Commitment: the consistency of clinicians and the use of legal standards. Am J Psychiatry 1989; 146(2): 176-181.

Nicholson RA. Characteristics associated with change in the legal status of involuntary psychiatric patients. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1988; 39 (4): 424-9.

Cohen NL, Marcos LR. Law, Policy, and Involuntary Emergency Room Visits. Psychiatr Quart 1990; 61 (3): 197-204.

(b) Consent and capacity

Binder RL, McNiel DE. Involuntary patients' right to refuse medication: impact of the Riese decision on a California inpatient unit. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law 1991; 19 (4):351-7.

Doyal L. Informed consent: moral necessity or illusion? Qual Health Care 2001; 10(suppl 1): 29-33.

Ganzini L, Lee MA, Heintz RT, Bloom JD. Depression, suicide, and the right to refuse life-sustaining treatment. J Clin Ethics 1993; 4(4):337-340.

Larkin GL, Marco CA, Abbott JT. Emergency determination of decision-making capacity: balancing autonomy and beneficence in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 2001; 8(3): 282-284.

Lavoi FW: Consent, involuntary treatment, and the use of force in an urban emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 1992; 21: 25-32.

Sheline Y, Beattie M. Effects of the right to refuse medication in an emergency psychiatric service. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1992; 43 (6): 640-2.

Stotland NL. Refusal of medical treatment: psychiatric emergency? Am J Psychiatry 1997; 154(1):106-108.

(c) Forensic

Putkonen H, Komulainen EJ, Virkkunen M, Eronen M, Lonnqvist J. Risk of Repeat Offending Among Violent Female Offenders With Psychotic and Personality Disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160(5): 947-951.

Simon RI, Goetz S. Forensic issues in the psychiatric emergency department. Psychiatr Clin N Am 1999; 22 (4): 851-64.

Tengstrom A, Hodgins S, Grann M, Langstrom N, Kullgren G. Schizophrenia and Criminal Offending: The Role of Psychopathy and Substance Use Disorders. Criminal Justice and Behavior. 2004; 31(4): 367 - 391.

Wallace C, Mullen PE, Burgess P. Criminal Offending in Schizophrenia Over a 25-Year Period Marked by Deinstitutionalization and Increasing Prevalence of Comorbid Substance Use Disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2004; 161(4): 716-727.

(d) Other

Appelbaum PS. Law & Psychiatry: One Madman Keeping Loaded Guns: Misconceptions of Mental Illness and Their Legal Consequences. Psychiatr Serv 2004; 55(10): 1105 - 1106.

Derse AR. HIV and AIDS. Legal and ethical issues in the emergency department. Emerg Med Clin N Am 1995; 13(1): 213-223

Felthous AR. The clinician's duty to protect third parties. Psychiatr Clin N Am 1999; 22:1, 49-59.Hughes, DH. Implications of recent court rulings for crisis and psychiatric emergency services. Psychiatr Serv 1996; 47 (12): 1332-1333.

Karzz A. Preventability of Malpractice Claims in Emergency Medicine - a Close Claims Study. N EngJ Med 1990; 314: 1557.

Skeem JL, Mulvey EP, Appelbaum P, Banks S, Grisso T, Silver E, Robbins PC. Identifying Subtypes of Civil Psychiatric Patients at High Risk for Violence. Criminal Justice and Behavior 2004; 31 (4): 392-437.


XV.      Textbooks and Internet References

Allen MH (ed). Emergency Psychiatry (Review of Psychiatry Services, Volume 21, Number 3, Oldham MJ and Riba MB, series editors) Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2002.

Allen MH, Currier GW. Medical Assessment in the Psychiatric Emergency Service. New Developments in Emergency Psychiatry:  Medical, Legal, and Economic. G.Currier. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Publishers. 1999.

Appelbaum P, Gutheil T. Clinical Handbook of Psychiatry and the Law, ed 2. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1991.

Arana GW, Rosenbaum JF. Handbook of Psychiatric Drug Therapy - 4th ed. Arana GW, Rosenbaum JF eds. Lipincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2000.

Brown TM, Stoudemire A. Psychiatric Side Effects of Prescription and Over-The-Counter Medications: Recognition and Management. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1998.

Cuffel BJ, Hoge SK, et al. Violent and destructive behavior among the severely mentally ill in rural areas: evidence from Arkansas' community mental health system, 1994 (available at

De Clercq M, Lamarre S, et al., Eds. Emergency Psychiatry and Mental Health Policy: An International Point of View. New York, Amsterdam, Oxford, Tokyo, Singapore, Shannon, Lausanne,  Elsevier. 1998.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed. 4-TR. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, 1999.

Ellison JM, Pfaelzer C. Emergency Pharmacotherapy: The Evolving Role of Medications in the Emergency Department. Growth and Specialization of Emergency Psychiatry. M. H. Allen. San Francisco, Jossey Bass. 1995.

Frew S. EMTALA Online -- Health Law Resource Center., 2002 New York State Health Code (Title 10, paragraph 405.4).

Gelenberg A, Schoonover S. Bipolar Disorder. The Practitioner's Guide to Psychoactive Drugs. AJ Gelenberg and SC Schoonover. New York, Plenum Medical Book Company. 1991.

Gutheil TG, Appelbaum PS. Clinical handbook of psychiatry and law, 3rd edition. Baltimore, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 2000.

Harwood-Nuss AL, et al. The Clinical Practice of Emergency medicine-2nd ed. (Eds. Harwood-Nuss AL et al.) Lippincott-Raven, 1996.

Hess H, Rustler P, et al. Assessment and Crisis Intervention with Clients in a Hospital Emergency Room. Crisis Intervention Handbook: Assessment. A. R. Robert. Belmont, CA, Wadsworth. 1990.

Jacobs DG et al, In Jacobs DG, ed. Harvard Medical School Guide to Suicide Assessment and Intervention. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 1998: 3-39.

Jacobs DG. Evaluation and care of suicidal behavior in emergency settings. Suicide: Understanding and responding. D.Jacobs and H. brown. Madison, Conn, International Universities Press. 1989.

Rundell JR, Wise MG eds. Textbook of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry. American Psychiatric Press, Inc. Washington, DC. 1996.

Sadka S. Psychiatric Emergencies in Children and Adolescents. The Growth and Specialization of Emergency Psychiatry. M. Allen. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Publishers.  Fall 1995.

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